What is a wound?

A wound is considered as anything that is a result of any damage to biological body tissue such as skin or organ tissues. There is a range of traumas that can cause wounds to your body and it is essential that wounds are cleaned and cared for as soon as they are noticed on the body in order to avoid infection which can often lead to further problems.

What is an open wound?

Open wounds are the wounds with exposed underlying tissue and open to the outside environment, for example, penetrating wounds. Types of open wounds include:

What is a closed wound?

Closed wounds occur without any exposure to the underlying damaged tissue and organs and are generally caused through blunt trauma. Types of closed wounds include:

  • Contusions
  • Blisters
  • Seroma
  • Hematoma 
  • Crush injuries
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Abrasions occur as a result of minor contact or scraping the skin against a rough surface, commonly through the action of falling over. Children tend to get them when falling over during outdoor activities, such as riding a bike or playing football. They typically only affect the epidermis - the outer layer of skin. However, these wounds can become more serious in certain cases where the abrasions affect a wide area of the body or are deeper into the skin tissue.

Scarring is less common with abrasions, and can be completely avoided by following a step-by-step wound healing routine. Read more on how to treat abrasions.

An illustration of an abrasion.


A laceration wound is caused by skin tissue tearing from an external force. Due to the high level of force, the edges of the skin around the wound are not as smooth as incisions and therefore can lead to very prominent scarring if a proper wound care routine is not practiced.

Lacerations heal a lot slower in comparison to an incision wound because the tear in the skin tissue is much more jagged. They can typically affect the deeper tissues within the body such as: bones, blood vessels, muscles, ligaments, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and other internal organs.

These wounds usually affect the areas of the body that are very close to the bone, such as your knees, elbows, shins, forehead and skullcap. Read more on how to treat lacerations.

An illustration of a laceration.


An incision wound is caused when a sharp object inflicts the skin with a clean cut. A very common example of an incision wound would be a surgical incision for an operation on the body. Generic causes of incision wounds can be from kitchen knives, scissors, broken glass and any other accessible sharp objects through doing everyday activities.

Typically, incision wounds heal much quicker than other types of wounds due to the smoother skin edges around the cut. This means scarring from deep incision wounds is less prominent in comparison to other types of wounds.


A puncture wound occurs when a sharp object penetrates the skin. They can be caused by stepping on an upright nail or needle. Puncture wounds are deeper and generally more narrow than incision wounds, and often can cut through the underlying tissues depending on the size of the object. Puncture wounds typically close quickly as they’re smaller on the exterior, however they can lead to internal infections such as tetanus.


Avulsions are more serious injuries in which the skin is completely separated from the tissue beneath. Avulsions typically occur during major road accidents or when the body interacts with an object that is moving at dangerously high speeds. An avulsion injury would need immediate surgical treatment for chances of recovery on the torn tissue.
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How to tell if your wound is clean or infected

Infections are likely to happen when dirt or bacteria finds a way into the tissue beneath your skin through an open wound. A clean wound will heal a lot quicker and show gradual signs of healing. An infected cut typically takes a lot longer to heal and becomes more painful over time. Read more on how to tell if your wound is clean or infected.

How do I make sure my wound is clean

For more serious injuries such as avulsions, deep puncture wounds and large abrasions, it is recommended to visit a healthcare professional immediately, especially if there is a considerably high level of blood loss.

All wounds that lack immediate threat should be cleaned as soon as possible using Elastoplast Wound Spray to avoid different types of wound infections. Most wounds can be treated at home and the first step in the healing process is to clean the wound in order to avoid scabbing.
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Always see a doctor if the wound is deep, bleeds heavily or shows signs of infection like reddening, swelling or warmth.

Please note that, although these were compiled with great care, the tips and advice given on this website by no means substitute medical advice and treatment. If you have or suspect a health problem, consult a doctor and follow medical advice regardless of what you have learned on this website.

Always read carefully and follow the instructions for use or the product leaflets. For further information about our products, please contact us via email at ConsumerRelationsUK@Beiersdorf.com.

Different Types of Wounds | Open & Closed Wounds | Elastoplast

Understand the five different types of wound, how to treat them, how to avoid infections, and understand the differences between open & closed wounds.